In psychology, there are different theories of personality development. Each theory has its own take on how we develop our personality. In this blog post, we will explore the different types of personality development in psychology. We will start with Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, which suggests that our personality is shaped by our early childhood experiences. We will then move on to Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, which suggests that our personality is shaped by the social interactions we have throughout our lives. Finally, we will look at Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, which suggests that our personality is shaped by the way we process information.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
Freud’s theory of psychosexual development proposes that there are five essential stages of personality development, each characterized by a different erogenous zone. These stages are: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to Freud, the successful navigation of each stage is crucial to the development of a healthy personality.
The oral stage is the first of Freud’s psychosexual stages of personality development. It begins in infancy and lasts until around age one. During this stage, the primary source of pleasure is derived from the mouth and surrounding areas. This includes activities such as sucking, biting, and chewing. The oral stage is important for developing a sense of trust and intimacy with others.
The anal stage is the second of Freud’s psychosexual stages of personality development. It begins around age one and lasts until around age three. During this stage, the primary source of pleasure is derived from the anus and surrounding areas. This includes activities such as defecating and retaining faces. The anal stage is important for developing a sense of control over one’s body and environment.
The phallic stage is the third of Freud’s psychosexual stages of personality development. It begins around age three and lasts until around age six. during this stage, The primary source Of pleasure Is derived from The genitals And surrounding areas. This includes activities such As masturbation And exploring The body. The phallic stage Is Important For developing A sense Of
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development is a theory that suggests that there are eight stages of human development. Each stage is characterized by a different conflict that must be resolved in order for the individual to move on to the next stage. The theory is often used to explain how people develop and change over the course of their lifetime.
The first stage, known as trust vs. mistrust, occurs during infancy. This is when babies learn to either trust or mistrust the people and world around them.
The second stage, termed autonomy vs. shame and doubt, takes place during early childhood and is when children learn to either become independent or feel ashamed and doubtful of themselves.
The third stage, initiative vs. guilt, begins in middle childhood and continues into adolescence. This is when children learn to either take initiative or feel guilty about their actions.
The fourth stage, industry vs. inferiority, also begins in middle childhood and carries into adolescence. During this time, children learn to either feel competent and capable or inferior and inadequate.
The fifth stage, identity vs. role confusion, starts during adolescence and extends into young adulthood. At this time, individuals start to question who they are and what role they will play in society. The sixth stage, intimacy vs. isolation, takes place during young adulthood and is when individuals start to desire close relationships with others or feel isolated from others.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
In the early 1900s, developmental psychologist Jean Piaget proposed four distinct stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
During the sensorimotor stage, which lasts from birth to approximately 2 years of age, infants and toddlers gain an understanding of the world through their senses and motor activities. They learn that objects continue to exist even when they can’t see them, a concept known as object permanence.
The preoperational stage, from about 2 to 7 years of age, is characterized by egocentric thinking. Children at this age are not yet able to think abstractly or consider another person’s point of view. They also tend to use magical thinking, believing that their thoughts and wishes can influence reality.
The concrete operational stage, from about 7 to 11 years of age, is when children start to think more logically. They are able to consider multiple perspectives and understand cause-and-effect relationships. However, they still think in concrete terms and have difficulty understanding abstract concepts.
Lastly, the formal operational stage begins in adolescence and continues into adulthood. This is when people are able to think abstractly and hypothetically. They can reason logically and reflect on their own thoughts and feelings.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg was a psychologist who is best known for his theory of moral development. This theory consists of three levels, with each level containing two stages. The first level is Pre-Conventional morality, which is characterized by a focus on self-interest and includes the following stages:
1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation: In this stage, individuals obey rules and behave in certain ways in order to avoid punishment.
2. Exchange Orientation: In this stage, individuals realize that they can exchange favors with others in order to get what they want.
The second level is Conventional Morality, which is characterized by a focus on social conformity and includes the following stages:
3. Good Boy/Girl Orientation: In this stage, individuals conform to societal expectations in order to be seen as good people.
4. Law and Order Orientation: In this stage, individuals conform to rules and laws in order to maintain social order.
The third and final level is Post-Conventional Morality, which is characterized by a focus on personal principles and includes the following stages:
5. Social Contract Orientation: In this stage, individuals follow societal conventions because they believe it is beneficial for everyone involved.
6. Universal Ethical Principals Orientation: In this stage, individuals develop their own personal code of ethics that goes beyond compliance with society’s rules.
Marcia’s Identity Statuses
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development describes eight stages that a person goes through from birth to death. In each stage, the person faces a crisis that must be resolved before moving on to the next stage. Marcia’s Identity Statuses were first described by James Marcia in 1966 and are often used to describe an individual’s progress through Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.
There are four identity statuses: diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement. Diffusion is when an individual has not yet gone through the identity crisis associated with a particular stage of development. Foreclosure occurs when an individual prematurely commits to a certain identity without going through the necessary exploration. A moratorium is when an individual is actively exploring different identities but has not yet made a commitment. Achievement is when an individual has successfully resolved the identity crisis associated with a particular stage and committed to a certain identity.
It is important to note that individuals can move back and forth between these statuses and that there is no set order in which they must occur. For example, someone may achieve one identity status but then later enter into a period of diffusion or moratorium with regard to another identity.
There are a variety of different theories on personality development in psychology, each with its own unique perspective. By understanding the different types of personality development, we can gain a better understanding of our own personalities and how they develop over time. What type of personality do you think you have? Share your thoughts in the comments below!